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      英国作业范文:如何在数字时代改变公关角色How have PR roles changed in the digital

      时间:2019-03-14 15:33来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
      导读:此文是一篇英国作业,说的是在数字时代,公关角色发生了很大的变化,从舆论的控制转变为舆论的领导者,从组织形象的维护者转变为符合公众利益的人,从信息生产者转变为信息控制
      导读:此文是一篇英国作业,说的是在数字时代,公关角色发生了很大的变化,从舆论的控制转变为舆论的领导者,从组织形象的维护者转变为符合公众利益的人,从信息生产者转变为信息控制者。?#35828;?#33258;我品牌成功与他在战略中扮演正确的公关角色有着密切的关系。
      1.0 Introduction引言
      公共关系(PR)是指社会组织利用沟通手段,在自身与公众之间形成双向沟通,以实现双方相互理解和相互适应的管理活动(侯,2016)。良好的公关对于企业的成功起着重要作用(Cheng、Huang和Chan,2016)。值得注意的是,在数字时代,由于网络技术带来的不同的沟通方式、信心沟通和消费者行为,公关的角色发生了重大变化(Charest、Bouffard和Zajmovic,2016;Allagui和Breslow,2016)。如何正确理解这一变化已成为当代企业和组织取得成功的关键因素(Lee等人,2015)。本研究将关注公关在数字时代中的角色变化,以香港娱乐圈中的一位明星古巨基为例,以自我品牌为例,分析如何适应这一变化,以求成功。
      Public relations (PR) refer to the management activities that a social organization uses the means of communication to form a two-way communication between itself and the public to achieve the mutual understanding and mutual adaptation of the two sides (Hou, 2016). Good PR plays an important role in the success of an enterprise (Cheng, Huang and Chan, 2016). It is worth noting that in the digital eras, the roles of PR have undergone significant changes due to the different modes of communication, communication of confidence and consumer behavior brought by network technology (Charest, Bouffard and Zajmovic, 2016; Allagui and Breslow, 2016). How to correctly understand this change has become the key factor for a contemporary enterprise and organization to achieve success (Lee et al., 2015). This study will focus on the changes in the roles of PR in the digital eras, taking a star in the amusement circle in Hong Kong named Leo Ku as an example of self branding to analyze how to adapt to this change to be successful.
      2.0 Body主体
      2.1 Change from a controller of information into a leader of public opinion从信息控制者转变为舆论领袖
      信息获取的开放性在于数字化时代的公关角色从信息控制者转变为舆论领袖(Toledano和Avidar,2016)。传统公关活动必须通过广播电视等大众媒体进行(侯,2016)。大众传媒资源稀?#20445;?#25317;有支配信息资源的特权,具有形成或塑造舆论的能力(Allagui和Breslow,2016)。现在,任何具有一定计算机或网络知识?#22270;?#33021;的人都可以通过网站的建立、发送电子?#22987;?#31561;网络功能发布新闻、传播信息(Toledano和Avidar,2016年),这使得一些人通过控制媒体来控制和操纵舆论变得一文不值。
      传统的公关媒体受信息传播速?#21462;?#22320;域和时间的限制,难以实现快速有效的传播(Lee等人,2015)。信息时代的信息传播工具具?#24418;?#19982;伦比的快速、及时的优势,使组织能够尽快获得信息,信息也能迅速地从组织向公众传播,从而实现组织间更有效的互动和沟通,从而使组织间的信息交流真正成为现实。公共关系可能的有效沟通(Allagui和Breslow,2016年)。
      The openness of information acquisition lies in that PR roles in the digital eras change from the controller of information to the leader of public opinion (Toledano and Avidar, 2016). Traditional PR activities must be carried out through the use of mass media such as radio and television (Hou, 2016). The mass media have scarce resources and the privilege of dominating information resources, which makes them have the ability to form or shape public opinions (Allagui and Breslow, 2016). Now, anyone with a certain degree of computer or network knowledge and skills can publish news, disseminate information through network functions such as the establishment of the Website, sending e-mail (Toledano and Avidar, 2016), which makes a few people’s control and manipulation of public opinion through controlling the media become naught.
      Traditional PR media is limited by the speed, region and time of the information transmission, which makes PR difficult to achieve the rapid and effective communication (Lee et al., 2015). The information communication tool in the information age has unparalleled fast and timely advantages, making organizations have an access to information as soon as possible, and the information can also be spread rapidly from the organizations to the public to achieve a more effective interaction and communication between them, which make real timely and effective communication of PR possible (Allagui and Breslow, 2016).
       In the digital eras, it is almost impossible for organizations to control public opinion freely by controlling the absolute right of speech to affect the public (Charest, Bouffard and Zajmovic, 2016), to take public recognition as an example, the existence of the network brings a large number of sources of information, the public have the opportunity to fully express their views, the public are through the analysis, debate and exchange of events to ultimately form their own views and attitudes to be divided into different social groups, and ultimately forming their own identification. Considering from the process of formation of identification in the digital eras, the decisive role of PR in the formation of identification has lost, the public plays an increasingly important role in the process of formation of identification. However, it should be noted that PR in the digital eras does not completely lose its function, it still plays the role of public opinion leader. In the digital age, the monopoly of traditional media towards information is broken, on the premise that organizations do not violate laws and professional ethics, they can make use of network communication tools, according to their own wishes to publish information to all types of the public, including the media, and paying attention to effective interaction with them (Allagui, and Breslow, 2016). In this way, organizations will be able to grasp the initiative in PR activities, they have a direct impact on the public, and thus playing a good role of a public opinion guider.
      2.2 Change from a defender of corporate image into a role to satisfy public interest
      In the past, one of the main roles of a government or enterprises in the implementation of PR management strategies is maintenance of their own public image (Hou, 2016), in the digital age, the role of PR is transformed into a defender of public interest.
      PR scholars point out that there are four PR practice models: news agent model, public information model, bidirectional asymmetric model and bidirectional symmetric model (Hou, 2016; Cheng, Huang and Chan, 2016). Among them, the bidirectional symmetric mode is considered to be the most ideal. However, in the PR communication activities which mainly use traditional media, sender of information copies and transmits the mass information to the audience through the mass media. The audience only accepts the information passively, and they often have no right to speak. Such "one-to-many " or "minority-to-many ", top-down mode is difficult to achieve the two-way symmetry of transmission (Lee et al., 2015). Therefore, organizations or the media usually fails to understand what the public demand for, but in the digital eras, with the development of the trend of consumerism, individualism, the public prefer to express self to cause everyone's attention, they pay more attention to whether their personal needs can be met, while the emergence of the network allows those who have an access to the Internet can convey their views, opinions, suggestions to many people. This communication essentially guarantees the two-way nature and symmetry of transmission. This interactive nature makes it possible for the public to truly participate in the whole PR process. The initiative of the public to participate is increased, and their initiative of making a choice is also strengthened, which requires that organizations should provide personalized information services to the public with diverse needs. Therefore, the role of PR in the digital eras will be transformed into a role to satisfy public interest.
      2.3 Change from an information publisher into an information manager
      Excessive and random information the digital eras poses a significant barrier to PR personnel to identify valuable information (Allagui and Breslow, 2016). Since anyone can publish information, have an access to information and exchange information online, it also brings a series of problems such as information explosion on the Internet, information pollution and so on. In the past, PR department is mainly responsible for information dissemination, but the digital eras, PR department must redefine their duties and roles, their traditional role of an information publisher is changed into an information manager. In this network society with excessive and random information, how to distinguish useful information and useless information, how to determine the flow of information has become a crucial issue. For example, in the digital age, an organization should observe the development trend of the whole society, the public opinion, the public speech, use the information and opportunity which is beneficial to the organization to make the public understand the enterprise's policy, policy and development prospect to establish the good relationship between the enterprise and the society, so as to strive to improve its corporate brand image. At the same time, as PR personnel, they need to take the initiative to fully and accurately collect information to understand the public’s psychology, needs and trends, and then taking targeted measures to affect the public psychology and decision-making.


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