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      代写美国essay:economic co-operative essay

      时间:2019-03-04 14:02来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
      导读:本文是一篇美国本科economicco-operative的essay,主要研究的是合作模式能够为当代经济和社会问题提供一些东西。如果没有,那怎么能更好地实现这些目标呢?该模型的优点和缺点是什么,
      导读:本文是一篇美国本科economic co-operative的essay,主要研究的是合作模式能够为当代经济和社会问题提供一些东西。如果没有,那怎么能更好地实现这些目标呢?该模型的优点和缺点是什么,它们如何解决?。
      从20世纪30年代开始,电力合作社成为美国农村的一项重要经济战略,并通过2012年的飓风沙地等事件继续取得成功(Calderwood和Paul,2014年)。然而,美国的大多数情况证明合作不会必然会导致社会和环境意识的进步,尽可能地关注化石燃料和核能(Wood,2014)。然而,新一代可再生能源合作社已经开始组织起来。美国的农业合作社取得了一些主流成功,包括韦尔奇先生,海浪和陆地O'湖泊。在美国,一个合作社成立于1920年。有超过29,000.00个合作社雇用超过200万美元和每年6520亿美元的人(Zhao,2011)。一个组织的解决方案需要更新,小型合作社,合作联盟后的美国工人成立于2000年(MacPherson,2008)。
      Electric cooperatives become an important economic strategy of rural America starting in the 1930 s, and continued to success through events such as hurricanes sandy in 2012 (Calderwood and Paul, 2014).Value most in the United States, however, proved that cooperation does not necessarily lead to progress of the social and environmental consciousness, as much as possible to keep focus on fossil fuels and nuclear energy (Wood, 2014). However, a new generation of renewable energy cooperatives has begun to organization. Agricultural cooperatives in the United States have some of the mainstream success, including Mr Welch, sea spray, and land O 'lakes. In the United States, a cooperative association was established in 1920. There are more than 29,000.00 cooperatives to hire people with more than $2 million and $652 billion per year (Zhao, 2011). Solution for an organization needs to be updated and smaller cooperatives, American workers after cooperation federation was founded in 2000 (MacPherson, 2008).
      员工所有权,员工持股计划(ESOP)的替代方法是在美国路易斯开发的,参与者罗素在1974年制定法律的长期激励,例如,在加利福尼亚州的大型连锁超市制造商,以及家具的收入超过20亿美元,员工持股(Wood,2014)。员工分享信任?#19981;?#22810;或少地独立发展,例如,在给定的铁管公?#23613;?#24456;多人越来越关注合作社运动的结构和发展问题(Zhao,2011)。随着19世纪运动的发展,它已率先发展联邦,动员地方组织更加集中力量和经济实力的社会和政治效应。通常,系统有效地工作。但是,由于不同的发展水平和不同的规模,每个地方组织的有效运作水平不同,系统的有效性受到了损害。因此,他们很难达成协议来决定共同做什么。大型地方组织倾向于将自己的共同利益联系起来,绕过他们的联邦结?#38599;?#24448;是缓慢而笨拙的。由于日益复杂,中央组织的管理变得越来越具有挑战性。Employee ownership, alternative methods of employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), is developed in the United States Louis and long-term incentive of senator Russell written law in 1974, for example, in the large supermarket chain a California manufacturer, and furniture of the income of more than $2 billion, employee shareholding(Wood, 2014). Employee share trust also more or less independent development, for example, in a given iron pipe company. A lot of people are becoming more and more concern in the cooperative movement structure and development problems(Zhao, 2011). Along with the development of the movement in the 19th century, it has taken the lead in the development of federation, to mobilize local organizations into greater concentration and the social and political effects of economic strength. In general, the system works effectively. However, due to the different developing level and different size, different level of effective operation of each local organization, the effectiveness of the system is jeopardized. Therefore, it is difficult for them to reach agreement to decide what to do in common. Big local organizations tend to network on their common interests and bypass their federal structure is often slow and clumsy. Management of the central organization is becoming more and more challenging due to the increasing complex. 
      Not easily applicable model to manage the organization, in addition to private companies by imitation is big, and they don't have to deal with many of the cooperative enterprise problem: for example, members of the special role/owners of the enterprise through the alliance cooperation, community service way of cooperation, and work with the government systematically to obtain the appropriate legislation (Calderwood and Paul, 2014).
      Management challenges of success, building began reflecting the ways the cooperation ideas and values, it will only grow in century. Similarly, many established movement facing more and more serious problems of communication. Since the founding of new China in the 1920 s, generation after generation, died in most major European cooperative movement; In some countries they happened to leave two or three generations. The root cause of the development of cooperatives, therefore, is not as clear as ever. The beginning of the identity crisis, will beset movement for decades. Trying to cope with this problem by creating some national campaign partner schools, education institutions focus on the elected leaders and young workers, to a certain extent, the public, make sports values and ideas better understanding and application more effectively. This process in the mid - 1930 - s help when ICA is finally able to adopt a common set of principles, even those who are most likely to satisfy the needs of the consumer society. Ongoing identity problems are, however, for most of the rest of the century. This is a problem, it is difficult to come up with a joint united front the world outside, considering the different points of view in motion, avoid difficulties, often deep hate meetings, at the international conference. It is difficult to work with others focus on the question of the basic framework, challenges and scale advantage, and embarrassing identity problem. 1929 outbreak of the great depression and its deepening influence created some corresponding economic problems in the 1930 s but in the balanced development of the depression is good exercise. Method to improve the possibility of using cooperation is, for most people to cope with the serious economic and social problems. In many industries in the United States and Canada, such as credit unions, consumption, agriculture, fishing, and energy cooperation fields, the movement has been expanding rapidly.  In tremendous placesworld widely, many people find ideology very attractive, make people refreshing to go back to the 19th century the enthusiasm and practical idealism.
      These new interest cooperation ideas related to cooperative complex problems in Soviet socialist republic and its moons. In line with the Marxist analysis of common cooperative, leader of the Soviet Union, after the Russian revolution in 1917, did not look at the cooperative as an important part of their project. Proletarian Dictatorship, era ", preferring to focus on key decisions as much as possible, and not let them in Moscow local action(Calderwood and Paul, 2014).
      Results, however, the Soviet union found it useful to use forms of cooperation to provide food by enhancing urban consumption cooperatives network control of its central organization residual; The development cooperation in many cities housing; And most controversially, in the later s creating collective farm marshalling the use state of rural resources. The Soviet Union initiative international sports bring serious problem.
      After the world war, the movement of increasing citizen’s happiness and daily living security became popular. In many countries, such as the US and a lot of European countries, they began to expand the range of welfare projects. These projects focused on how to improve care and education fields, such as universal health care, care for the elderly, national wide compulsory retirement plans, as well as mandatory education for children and public reeducation facilities. This is a serious economic problem and avoids the repeat of the depression to commemorate the sacrifice in the war. Although there is no generally support the development of the welfare state and the cooperative movement, they tend to through the public service delivery service and limited government agencies participation or regulation(Calderwood and Paul, 2014). General cooperatives participated in their communities, such as early farming cooperatives in North America, workers' general (especially with intentional community), become more evident during the depression, may be more actively found at the end of the war without much promise of the welfare development. In a great certain of degree, the international movement of the historic public social instinct is the emergence of the welfare state has been weakened. Shortly after the end of the war, there is quite a large expansion of motion (Wood, 2014). Several cooperative movement is beginning to emerge, and of course, usually in the imperial policy of agricultural development in the financial industry, or to establish a more mature market economy service ability. However, there are significant differences of role-playing of civil servants, in the colonies, or in the "mother" of the country. Have doubt the extent of the Cooperatives Empire has become a real integrated into the social and economic structure of the colony. This is the reason that why in the 1950s, there was big rate of damage in the south of the country. It also helps explain why the old cooperative movement is not as powerful in the south are likely to create new cooperative solve the problem of social and public.


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