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      代寫英國經濟學essay:國際經濟專業——經濟政策分析

      時間:2019-02-25 14:09來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
      導讀:英國留學生經濟學essay怎么寫?本文是一篇國際經濟專業的課程essay,在寫作或者準備寫作的小伙伴可以看下此篇范文,來更好的理解下次專業的作業寫作規范和整個論文機構是怎么樣的
      導讀:英國留學生經濟學essay怎么寫?本文是一篇國際經濟專業的課程essay,在寫作或者準備寫作的小伙伴可以看下此篇范文,來更好的理解下次專業的作業寫作規范和整個論文機構是怎么樣的。內容主要講述了目前各國正在根據市場情況調整政策。然而,窮人的經濟利潤最容易被忽視。
       
      1.0引言
      第二次世界大戰以來,世界經濟在半個世紀內取得了重大發展。與此同時,世界各地的富人和窮人之間也出現了巨大的差距。富人變得極其富有,而窮人幾乎無法謀生。這是經濟全球化進程中最突出的問題之一。
      1.0 Introduction
      The world economy has gained major development during the half century since the second world war. And at the same time, a huge gap occurs between the rich and the poor worldwide. Rich people becomes extremely wealthy, while the poor can hardly earn a living. This is one of the most outstanding problems in the process of economic globalization.
      2.0The popular trends of the rising global inequality lie on the following points: 2.0全球不平等加劇的普遍趨勢在于以下幾點:
      1. Less people gathers more world health. 2. There is an increase of the poverty population and a deterioration of the living condition. 3. A rising gap of average income occurs between the developing countries and developed countries. 4. The inequality of average income in developing countries has become worse. 5. Economic transformation countries face a rising income inequality.1.更少的人聚集更多的世界衛生。2。貧困人口增加,生活條件惡化。三。發展中國家和發達國家之間的平均收入差距越來越大。4。發展中國家的平均收入不平等狀況越來越嚴重。5。經濟轉型國家面臨著越來越嚴重的收入不平等。
      2.1Less people gathers more world health.2.1弱勢群體聚集了更多的世界衛生。
      全球收入差距已經擴大到這樣的程度:1996年,358名世界最富有的人擁有的財富相當于世界上一半人口年收入的總和;1998年,225名世界最富有的人(其中60人是美國)擁有的財產超過1萬億美元,相當于25億世界最貧窮的人的工資總額。人。24萬億美元用于購買商品和服務,其中1/5的富人消費了86%的錢,而1/5的窮人只消費了1%的錢。
      The global income gap has already widened to such a degree: In 1996, 358 world richest people own a wealth that is equal to the sum of world’s half populations’ annual income; In 1998, 225 world richest people (among them 60 people were America) has a property over 1 trillion $, which equals to the gross wages of the 2.5 billion world poorest people. 24 trillion $ is used to buy goods and services, 1/5 of the richest consume 86% of the money, while 1/5 of the poorest only consume 1% of the money. 
      2.2There is an increase of the poverty population and a deterioration of the living condition.2.2貧困人口的增加和生活條件的惡化。
      根據對最貧窮國家貧窮程度的衡量,1993年生活費用低于1美元的人口約為13億。現在,它達到了15億。5年內增加2億人。90年代初,世界上有三分之一的城市居民因為缺乏就業機會而生活貧困。(Marianne Kjellen和Gordon McGranahan,2006年)。城市貧困人口的最高集中在亞洲。在所有發展中國家中,非洲城市占貧困人口的比例最高,達到41%。
      According to the measurement of poverty of the poorest countries, the population of people who only had a living expenses less than 1$ is about 1.3 billion in 1993. Now, it reaches 1.5 billion. An increase of 200million happened within 5years. In the early 90’s, 1/3 of the world urban residents lived in poverty because of the lacking of job opportunities. (Marianne Kjellen and Gordon McGranahan 2006). The highest concentration of the urban poor population is in Asia. Among all the developing countries, African cities account for the highest proportion of poverty population, reaching a 41%.
      2.3A rising gap of average income occurs between the industrialized countries and developing countries.
      The annual report on “manpower development” of UNPD in 1996 showed that the difference of annual per-capita income between industrialized and developing  countries. From 1960 to 1993, the difference had expanded twice. In 1999, the world bank released a world development report, ranking the top 10 economic giant. America was the first. There were 48 least developed countries listed by UN, 33 among them were in the Africa, 13 were in the Asian-pacific region, the last two were in Latin America. 1/5 of the world population live in the high income countries. They occupy 86% of the GNP in the world, 82% of the EMS, 68% of the FDI, 74% of the telephone line. However, 1/5 of the world population live in the most poorest countries, they just hold 1% of the above-mentioned indicators. (Milanovic, B, 2012) 
      2.4The inequality of average income in developing countries has become worse.
      The expansion of the salary gap between the rich and the poor is the most serious in Latin America. In “the next 10 years development of Latin America and the national agenda” issued by the world bank in 1998, we can figure out that the minimum wage of Latin America had decreased 30%. The population below the poverty line had increased from 41% to 50%. According to official statistics, more than one half of the Mexican farmers and Indians live in grinding poverty. In Guatemala, Panama and Brazil, the income of the riches is 30 times that of the poor. To the developing countries, the 90s is an era of both poverty and growth. 
      2.5Economic transformation countries face a rising income inequality.
      It is a common phenomenon that economic transformation countries face a rising income inequality. The UNDP calculated that over 1 trillion world population experienced falling incomes, most of them are from eastern european countries and former Soviet Union.(Raynolds, Laura T, Murray, Douglas and Wilkinson, John, 2007) As a result of war, poverty and illness, there are 100 million more children are in danger in these two regions. 
      0n February 26, 1999, the Rossiyskaya Gazeta revealed that the actual cash income of Russian residents had reduced 18% of 1997 to 1998. After the outbreak of the economic crisis, the monthly income of residents was $60, and now, the number is 40-50$. In 1998, the unpaid wages were 77 billion roubles, 1.45 times of that of 1997. In 1997, the salary gap between rich and poor had reached 9.8 times; In 1998, the number had increased to 14.5 times. The average life span of Russians decreased from 69 in 1991to 64 in 1994, even shorter than the average life expectancy for low-income countries (Brown, David, 2006).
      3.0The main reasons leading to global inequality we are going to discuss are:1. The economic globalization. 2. The inequality of currency emergy. 3. The inequality of global communication relationships. 4.There is a positive connection between education and global inequality. 5. The internet revolution.
      3.1 The rising global inequality is an universal phenomenon, and it is related to the economic globalization.
      Economic globalization is a double blade sword, brings positive also negative effects. There are both opportunities and challenges for the developing countries. Since the 90s, the development of economic-globalization tendency not only enhances the dependence of every country development but also reduces the blocks between economic exchanges. The main forces promoting economic globalization in the world are :a. multinational corporations, which dominate the world investment, production and trade. b. International bank, controlling the world finance. Motivated by interest, they animated across ethnic and national boundaries. Recent years, capitals mainly flow to developed countries, and then to those few developing countries with rapid economic development and great market potential. However, the African countries only attract 5% of the foreign capital of the developing countries (Chris Edwards ,1985). Due to the financial crisis, some newly industrializing economies face enormous outflow of funds.  
      In the process of economy integration, the cross-border flows of capital has become more frequent. It can flow to countries with a large pool of cheap labor without national support, thus, to a certain degree, asking for a national favorable tax policy and bargaining with foreign countries. No matter in domestic or foreign, only the interest of labors are sacrificed. As a consequence, the rich become richer, the poor become poorer. 
      The fundamental starting point of every country has always been to consider the national interest. There exists differences between the status and situation of developing and developed countries. Developed countries still hold a dominant and initiative position, while the developing countries are just on the contrary. On the international market, developing countries are being squeezed by developed countries. Developed countries try vigorously to promote agreements that is beneficial to them in the international multilateral meetings. Although multinational corporations showed some borderless characteristics, but most multinational countries are controlled by developed countries. (Shafik, Nemat, 1994) It can be fundamentally described the interest of multinational corporations is exact the interest of developed countries. Only two countries were from developing countries in the world top 100 big companies. 
      3.2The inequality of currency emergy.
      A nation’s goods export and import, labor export and international travel can all help to calculate the nation’s yearly emergy wealth. If most of a country’s export are natural resources and primary products, the country will lose a large sum of emergy wealth. This is mainly because the real value of natural resources are much higher than the trading value. As the market value, currency is only used to measure the value of human labor while regardless of the use of the natural environment. (James, Paul and Gills, Barry, 2007) Different countries have different currencies, agricultural countries have higher currency rate, so a dollar is more valuable in agricultural countries than in industrialized countries. 


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