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      APA格式assignment范文:IT in hospitality

      时间:2019-03-13 13:29来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
      导读:我们知道绝大部分APA格式的英文论文都是双倍行距,12号字体,字体要求为Times New Roman,每段首行用tap键缩进,以下是一篇APA格式assignment范文,给大家做个正确的展示。 IT in hospitalityIT在

      导读:我们知道绝大部分APA格式的英文论文都是双倍行距,12号字体,字体要求为Times New Roman,每段首行用tap键缩进,以下是一篇APA格式assignment范文,给大家做个正确的展示。

      IT in hospitalityIT在酒店业
      1.0 Introduction简介
      本研究首先介绍了信息技术的定义和特点。然后,它提出了信息技术应用的理论基础,随后是信息技术在酒店业中的应用实证研究。最后,它为未来的研究提出了方向。
      This study first of all introduces the definition and characteristics of information technology. Then, it presents the theoretical basis of the use of information technology, followed by the empirical research of use of information technology in hospitality. Finally, it brings forward directions for future research.
      2.0 Definition and characteristics of IT IT的定义和特征
      信息技术(IT)是主要用于信息管理和处理的技术的总称,主要包括传感器技术,计算机技术和智能技术,通信和控制技术(Chen,Murphy和Knecht,2016)。
      IT的发展对社会进步产生了巨大的影响,这?#26234;?#22823;的影响取决于其特点,具体表现为数字化:数字信息处理具有高保真,大存储容量,快速传输速度等特点(王,李, Li和Zhang,2016),IT的使用使得各?#20013;?#24335;的信息,如文本,符号,图形,声音,视频数字,为统一处理和传输信息提供了基础(王,李,李和张,2016);网络:IT通过电信线路和相关设备将许多计算机系统连接在一起,以共享资源(Melián-González和Bulchand-Gidumal,2016);虚拟化:人们可以利用计算机生成的虚拟现?#30340;?#25311;环境来感知客观世界并获得相关技能(Guttentag,2010);智能化:它利用计算机来模拟,扩展和扩展人类智能,使机器具有人类思维和逻辑判断力,智能信息系统可以提供强大的推理,搜索和学习功能,为人们提供了大量便捷的自助服务(Rianthong, Dumrongsiri和Kohda,2016)。
      总而言之,IT具有数字化,网络化,智能化,虚拟化的优势,IT的使?#27599;?#20197;为酒店带来诸多好处,例如提高管理效率,降低成本,提高客户满意度等等。
      Information technology (IT) is a general term of technology used mainly for management and processing of information, mainly including sensor technology, computer technology and intelligent technology, communication and control technology (Chen, Murphy and Knecht, 2016).
      Development of IT has a huge impact on social progress, such a powerful effect is determined by its characteristics, which is specifically performed as digitization: digital information processing has high fidelity, large memory capacity, fast transmission speed and other characteristics(Wang, Li, Li and Zhang, 2016), the use of IT makes a variety of forms of information, such as text, symbols, graphics, sound, video digital, providing a basis for a unified processing and transmitting of information (Wang, Li, Li and Zhang, 2016); networking: IT links a number of computer systems together by telecommunication lines and associated equipment, in order to share resources (Melián-González and Bulchand-Gidumal, 2016); virtualization: people can make use of a computer-generated virtual reality simulation context to perceive the objective world and have an access to relevant skills (Guttentag, 2010) ; intelligentization: it uses computers to simulate, extend and expand human intelligence, making machine has a human thinking and logical judgment, intelligent information systems can provide strong reasoning, searching and learning functions to provide people with a lot of convenient self-service (Rianthong, Dumrongsiri and Kohda, 2016).
      All in all, IT has digital, networked, intelligent, virtualized advantages, the use of IT can bring hotels many benefits, such as improving management efficiency, reducing costs, improving customer satisfaction, and so on.
      3.0 Theoretical basis of the use of IT
      Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory divides needs into physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization; it is based on order of priority and from a lower level to a higher level. In general, when needs of a level are met, people will have needs of a high level, the pursuit of needs of a higher level become power of driving behavior (Maslow, 1943).Strong interaction, fast information transmission speed and large information storage capacity of IT makes the use of IT in hotels can not only satisfy low-level consumer demand, but also better meet consumer demand of high-level, so as to effectively improve customer satisfaction (Oltean, Gabor and Con?iu, 2014).
      Customer relationship management (CRM) is defined as the process that in order to improve core competitiveness, enterprises make use of appropriate information technology and Internet technology to coordinate the interaction between companies and customers in sales, marketing and services, so as to enhance their management mode to provide customers with innovative, personalized style of communication and service (Šebjan, Bobek and Tominc, 2014). The ultimate goal is to attract new customers and retain old customers and convert existing customers to loyal customers to increase market share (Oh, Jeong and Baloglu, 2013). Hotels use IT, such as CRM system can effectively manage and maintain long-term relationship between hotels and customers to improve customer loyalty (Hua, Morosan and DeFranco, 2015).
      Contingency theory was brought forward in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Contingency theory suggests that internal factors and external environmental conditions of each organization are different, and therefore there is no principle and method which can be applied to any scenario of management activities, in management practice, enterprises should be based on changes and development in their environment and internal conditions to carry out management resourcefully (Šebjan, Bobek and Tominc, 2014). To meet the individual needs of the guests, hotels should have more flexibility in management system, to take only standardized management and service system is not enough. Therefore, in accordance with contingency theory to implement management is necessary, but this will increase the burden of hotel staff and bring difficulty to hotel management. The use of IT can coordinate cooperation between the various departments of a hotel, while facilitating communication between employees and consumers, making hotel management in accordance with contingency theory turn into reality (Manoharan, Gross and Sardeshmukh, 2014).
      In short, for a hotel, whether it can meet high levels of consumer demand, whether it can maintain a good long-term relationship with consumers, whether it can well implement management measures based on contingency theory is very important and the use of IT can help a hotel to successfully complete the above-mentioned three goals.
      4.0 IT and customer service
      4.1 Meet personalized needs
      By using customer relationship management system and data mining technology, hotels can record each guest’s habits and preferences, when the guest checks in again, the room layout, room personnel service, restaurant food and service will fully comply with the guest’s habits, so that the guest will truly appreciate the warmth of home (Dursun and Caber, 2016). For example, business people want to handle relevant matters and have normal communication and exchange with their friends or families at a hotel, if the hotel offers broadband access, it will fully meet the needs of business guests in this regard, so that business travelers will on the one hand enjoy the hotel’s high quality services, at the same time, they can handle their own affairs, which will enhance customer satisfaction (Lai and Choi, 2015).
      4.2 Bring new experience
      WEBGIS takes GIS technology processing spatial information as the support, in addition to information management functions that traditional MIS has, the most significant is the addition of spatial analysis functions. It takes full consideration of what guests need to provide one-stop service for guests (Gkatzoflias, Mellios and Samaras, 2013), such as helping guests to have a shortest access to find the nearest relevant service facilities. It makes use of the method of road network analysis to find the shortest distance between departure and destination, as well as a variety of travel modes for guests to facilitate guests’ travelling to play the role of smart guide (Yang, Tang, Luo and Law, 2015).
      In the era when hotel reservation using the Internet has been popular, hotels can make use of Virtual Reality (VR) technology in the network to provide realistic impression of hotel rooms, restaurants, and even external environment around hotel, which can visually display the full range of hotel features (Nomura and Sawada, 1999), customers can browse virtual realistic pictures of hotels through the network, which can bring customers immersive experience and attract customers to get a good reputation (Woksepp and Olofsson, 2008). Guests can makes use of VR technology to have a comprehensive understanding of all types of hotel rooms, as well as conditions of restaurants, clubs and other sites of hotels, guests do not need to trouble in shuttle from a room to another room to confirm and select rooms of a hotel, like what they have done in the past, thus it saves time and improves efficiency of checking in (Guttentag, 2010).
      4.3 Reduce disturbing customer 
      Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) appeared in the 1990s, it is through the use of a radio frequency signal, through space coupling to achieve non-contact transmission of information and technology and through the information passed by to achieve the purpose of identification. Currently RFID has also been widely used in hotel management (Lin, Chen and Hsu, 2011).


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